Фев 07 2002

Some Problems Water Resources Of The Ukraine (short Servey)

some problems water resources of the ukraine (short servey)

Yu.S. Romanov

I.I. Mechnikov National University of Odessa, Ukraine

The territory of the Ukraine is of 60 thousand sq. km. and the population of  50 million people.

The natural water of the Ukraine includes rivers and lakes, water storages and ponds and underground water. At the south the Ukraine is washed is washed by the Black Sea and Sea of Azov. The overwhelming majority of rivers at the Ukraine belong to basins of the Black Sea and Sea of Azov, of them 44% belong to the basin of the Dnieper and 16% of the Dniester. The rest belong to basing of the Danube, South Bug, Siverskij Donets and to smaller river basins. Only 4% of rivers carry their waters to the Baltic Sea.

The regime of many rivers has been changed by man-made water reservoirs, the greatest of which (a cascade of six large water storages) have been built at the Dnieper.

But centers of excessive concentration of industry (Donetsk – Dnieper side industrial complex, South region and others) characterized by higher assert, resource and labor intensity have arisen.

These regions feature, a high level of air and land pollution of surface and underground water, acute water shortage.

The Ukrainian Parliament declared the whole republic an ecological disaster zone.

The main pollution sources are facilities, coal, chemical and petrochemical industries and agriculture.

The Ukraine is among European regions with the lowest water availability. Potential local resources of surface and underground water constitute 60 cu. km, decreasing in years with low water to 37 cu. km.

The river flow is nonuniformly distributed in time and over the territory. The Donetsk-Dnieperside and Southern regions, which account for nearly 60% of  the population and where the most water-intensive sectors of the national economy are located, receive less than a third of the whole local runoff. A

cascade of six large man-made water storages in the Dnieper, built in the 1950-1970`s, has created a reserve for the water supply to industrial centers of Donbas and Krivoj Rig region, irrigation of large land areas in the Black Seaside and Crimea. This, however, brougt about also enormous adverse consequences. The lands adjacent to the water storages (about 100 thosand hectares) get underflooded.

Special attention is given to problems involved in the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. About 3 million people, are now living at areas contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

There occur stagnation phenomena, build-up of harmful substances, water bloom and deterioration of banks.

The population and national economy of the Ukraine use annually about 30 billion cu. m of water (industry – 50%, agriculture – 30%, communal economy – 16%). With account of the necessary sanitary passes in river mouth, the water resources available for use are practically exhausted. To loosen the tension in the water supply, a further reduction of specific rates of water consumption in the industry is contemplated, primarily throgh introduction of circulating water supply systems and low water-intensive technologies.

The underground waters are using widely for management systems: from 24 administration regions water consumption is realizing in 4 regions almost on 100% and 10 regions more 50% on base of underground water.

Rivers, especially small, water storages, the Sea of Azov and Sivash, and the northwest part of the Black Sea feature an elevated pollution, degradation of the hydrologic state, loss of a considerable share of water and deterioration of recreational resources.

The most polluted rivers are the Siverskij Donets in the region of towns of Severodonetsk, Lisichansk, Rubizhne: the Ingulets in the region town of Krivyj Rig; South Bug in the region of towns of Vinnitsja and Pervomajsk; the Dnieper and Danube. Main pollutans include petroleum products, biogenic substances, phenols, toxic chemicals, salts of heavy metals.

The number of regions of a stable pollution of underground water has in the last 20 years increased more then fourfold and is now over 200. This resulted in pollution of 6% of the explored underground water storages, while nearly 24% of them have turned out to be under the real of loss of their quality.

In practically all southern regions and partly in the Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhja and Lugansk ones there occurs an increase in mineralization of underground water; concentrations of nitrates and pesticides in it have grown. A particularly precarious situation has formed in the Crimea, where underground water is polluted over an area of 5.4 thousand sq. km, which amounts to 38% of the Steppe Crimea`s area. An underground water pollution region of over 150 sq. km area has formed at the Lisichansk-Rubizhne industrial site. A real treat of pollution of 6 more water intakes, whose capasity is of 300 thousand cu. m per day, is existing.

The problem of purification of highly mineralized mine, openpit and drainage water, whose amount is of about 1 billion cu. m, is very acute.

Concern is caused by the state of the ecosystem of  the Black Sea, where the level of the hydrogen-sulfide zone is ascending and water is being polluted by industrial and domestic wastes as well as by agricultural chemicals. The Ukraine is willing to establish an internal collaboration for stabilizing the ecologic situation in this region.

Fundamentals of providing the ecological of man have been determined in the very first law-making steps of the souvereign Ukraine. the law "On the Environmental Protection" and the law on the establishment of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Ukraine have become important acts of the new state. The work on a package of new legal documents, which will provide for creating a united integral legislatory system of protection of water, airland, ecosystems, and human health, will be soon copleted.

The international collaboration in the environmental protection is one of priority items in the foreign policy course of the Ukraine. At the same time an inadequate economic base restrain a further expansion of mutually beneficial bilateral and multilateral relations.

References

1. Ukraine national report, Kiev, 1992.

2. Закон України про охорону навколишнього середовища, Відомості Верховної Ради України, Київ, 1991, № 41.

3. Заключение по результатам комплексного изучения экологической обстановки в Одесской области, Киев, 1990.

4. Національна доповідь про стан навколишнього середовища в Україні, Київ, 2000.

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