Апр 15 2003

ПРИНЦИПЫ БАЗОВОГО ЗОНИРОВАНИЯ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОГО

Опубликовано в 07:26 в категории Туризм

ПРИНЦИПЫ БАЗОВОГО ЗОНИРОВАНИЯ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОГО

ПАРКА "НИЖНИЙ ДНЕСТР"

П. Горбуненко, А. Андреев

Экологическое общество "BIOTICA", Кишинев, Молдова

(Проект средней величины ГЭФ/Всемирного Банка

"Сохранение биоразнообразия экосистемы дельты Нижнего Днестра")

PRINCIPLES OF THE BASIC ZONING

OF THE LOWER DNIESTER NATIONAL PARK

P. Gorbunenko, A. Andreev

BIOTICA Ecological Society, Kishinev, Moldova

(GEF/World Bank Medium Sized Project “Biodiversity Conservation in the Lower Dniester Delta Ecosystem”)

Зонирование национального парка подразделяется на базовое и функциональное. Базовое зонирование опирается на выделение зон с разной степенью законодательно закрепленного ограничения пользования территорией и использует в юридическом смысле ограничительный принцип в отношении Зоны строгой охраны (А) и Буферной зоны с экологической реконструкцией (В), составляющих домен парка и разрешительный принцип в отношении Зоны с ограниченной экономической активностью (С) и Зоны экономической активности (D), составляющих переходные зоны.

Функциональное зонирование (зоны посетителей, охоты, реконструкции, и др.) не связано с обязательными ограничениями пользования и является вторичным по отношению к ценности фрагментов территории. Поэтому функциональное зонирование, хотя и учтено в базовом зонировании, не рассматривается отдельно.

На территории будущего национального парка выделены 14 природных комплексов, которые расположены в зонах A, B и C.

Зона А в целом составляет 1335.73 га и включает наиболее ценные территории в 5 комплексах, среди которых наиболее крупные территории (765 га) расположены в Талмазких Плавнях.

Зона В в целом составляет 3047.13 га и включает ценные территории, которые нуждаются в специальном управлении для увеличения и сохранения природных ресурсов, распределенные в 11 комплексах.

Зона С в целом составляет 7413.19 га и включает 57 территорий, расположенных в 14 природных комплексах.

Зоны А и В не включают земель, находящихся в частной собственности.

Зоны В и С имеют буферное значение для строго охраняемых территорий, а также с точки зрения геосистемного баланса (в общеэкологическом смысле).

В целом, зоны А,В и С охватывают 11841.27 га, распределенных в 180 объектах, принимая во внимание различное землевладение в границах единых территорий.

Другие территории парка включены в Экономическую Зону (D), составляя 38926.73 гa.

Introduction

There are two types of zoning: base zoning and functional zoning. Base zoning leans on allocation of zones with different degrees of legislatively fixed restriction of the territory use and exercises in legal sense:

– the restrictive principle regarding to the Zone of strict protection (A) and Buffer Zone with ecological restoration (B), which form the park domain;

– the permissive principle regarding to the Zone of limited economical activities (C) and Economical Zone (D), which represent transition zones.

The functional zoning (zones for recreational use, hunting, reconstruction, etc.) is not connected with compulsory use restrictions and is the secondary one with respect to values of the territory fragments. Therefore, the functional zoning is taken into consideration within the base zoning and being related more to the management plans, is not considered in the present document.

Zoning principles

Nature protection principles

Principles, which reflect values of habitat, taking into consideration its contribution to:

– supporting as a whole fauna, flora and other components of biological diversity of the country, of the North-West zone of the Black Sea Side and Europe (i.e. biogeografical regions or other territorial units), which meet with conditions for conservation and survival in critical periods of their existence and stabilization of populations and ecosystems on this territory, for their reproduction and spreading;

– conservation of species and other taxonomic units, which are under the threat of disappearance in the country and/or out of its limits;

– conservation of landscape diversity and nature monuments related to it.

Principles, which take into consideration concerning the components of the biological and landscape diversity, existing in the territories of ecological network:

– uniqueness;

– significance for stability of ecological systems, both natural, and anthropogenic;

– values of components of biological and landscape diversity, from the economic, social, scientific and aesthetic points of view;

– their importance in the terms of ecological safety for counteraction to losses of biodiversity components and ecosystems efficiency, soil erosion, deterioration of humidifying regime and desertification as a whole.

Social-economical principles

Priority of the national interests and international obligations of the country.

Realistic approach to introduction or change of the status of protection.

Use of the general legislative norms of the environment protection (beyond the legislative provisions for especially protected natural territories).

Respect of the property rights and possession, on the basis of assessment of efficiency and competency of actions, and also tendencies of the natural resources changes.

Estimating of stakeholders’ interests in the kinds of using and of perspectives of their changes.

Assessment of the combined territory potential and of its parts, from the viewpoint of the traditional use of the discrete kinds of resources and of the cumulative value.

Arrangement of conditions for the integral territorial management, on the basis of cooperation of the stakeholders and community sectors.

Principles of data use on the endangered biological diversity components In order to substantiate the territory fragments’ values, from the standpoint of nature conservation and education, recreational and scientific use, it is applied the data on the presence of species with special status, and also about other distinguishing characteristics of the ecosystems. This is made as follows:

Taking into consideration the great and sometimes fast changes in state of species populations and their habitats, mainly reliable data, received during the last five years, are used for the zoning substantiation.

Traditionally, a greater importance was given to the data on the species included in the Red List of the International Union for Nature Conservation; these data are of global context.

Lists of the Bern Convention were used in a selective way. They are badly balanced from the biogeographical point of view, being based mainly on the materials on the Western Europe. The Lists are most objective regarding the mammals and herpetofauna, the Eastern-European flora is almost not taken into account, as well as terrestrial invertebrates as a whole. This part of the Lists was used in an admissible degree.

Use of the list of the protected species in Moldova is accompanied with a number of difficulties, related as to the status verification, well as to the present state from the formal point of view. Edition of the new version of the Red Data Book has no legal status and poorly reflects the biogeographical regional context. It does not cancel the List of the Law on the Fund of Natural Areas, Protected by State, not coinciding with the List on composition and content of categories. Besides, new version does not include the species of the lower risk of extinction ("rare species" in the old terminology, absent in the present edition for the financial reasons) – the integral category of the Red Data Book. Finally, the lists of new edition still are not complete with regard to included categories. At the same time, prepared Operational Lists of the Concept of the National Ecological Network also have no legal basis till now.

The South of Moldova as a whole and the territory of the National Park are included in the zone of Northwest Black Sea Coast, which has a special context, as it is an extensive contact zone between the Black Sea-Azov Steppes and Danube Wooded Steppe, and also, to some extent – of the Podillya-Moldovan Wooded Steppe. On a larger scale this is a part of Mediterranean region. Therefore, the special attention is paid to the threatened species, (1) included in both Red Data Books of Moldova and Ukraine, and also (2) rare in Moldova and included in suggestions on the lists of the threatened species of Romania. Such approach is important also from the viewpoint of the perspective to create Moldovan-Ukrainian protected territory.

Bonn Convention Lists (Afro-Eurasian Agreement) are used indirectly, as they include many species, because they include many species taken into account when the data use according to B-E paragraphs. As for the rest, in the absence of regular monitoring, these lists it is difficult to use, observing the principle described in paragraph A.

Here is used such a universally recognized basis for the special statute of territory, as the presence of the old-growth forestlands, poorly conserved in Europe, including in Moldova. This touches upon first of all the poplar forests, which are attaining early the production ripeness and therefore conserved in few places. A priority is given to the oak formations, which conservation and rehabilitation necessity has been declared repeatedly in Moldova and Eastern Europe.  Principles for inclusion in the zoning system of the objects, related to various types of the ownership.  The most valuable objects, from the point of view of biological diversity, were conserved mostly on the lands under the state public ownership with different land users. At the same time some self-restoring, valuable potentially or requiring the ecological restoration, may be attributing to other types of ownership: their inclusion in special zones requires the respect of the rights of local population, this fact has been taken into consideration.

Integral fragments of the territory, being in the possession of different land users or being under different ownership, are accordingly subdivided into objects.

The lands, being in the private ownership and requiring a special management, are proposed to be included in the Zone of the limited economical activities, if their perspective management plans were supported at the local level; these lands can be included in the zone A, B, C according to the landowner’s willingness.

The majority of the territory, covered by the herbaceous ecosystems is attributed to the pastures, being in the municipal ownership. The main part of them needs an improvement of their management or measures of rehabilitation with the reservation of the agricultural use; most of these lands have a high importance to support biological diversity in its various sides and are proposed to be included in zone C.

Herbaceous ecosystems, adjacent to the distinguished nature complexes, which receive the statute of reserves, are included in their structure; the isolated pastures are listed separately. Zoning.On the territory of the future national park are recognized 14 natural complexes, which comprise areas included in zones A, B and C.

Zone A on the whole comprises 1335.73 ha and includes the most valuable areas, situated in 5 complexes, among which the most extended areas (765 ha) are in the Talmaza Wetland Complex.

Zone B on the whole comprises 3047.13 ha and includes valuable areas, which need a special management for increasing and conservation of their natural values, situated in 11 complexes.

Zone C on the whole comprises 7413.19 ha and includes 57 areas situated in above mentioned 14 natural complexes; these lands are mostly under economical use, which has to be limited in a some ways; the latter is mostly determined by the necessity to increase their value from the resource point of view, or by the requirement to regulate the visitor management in the frame of recreational use. Here are included also 32 objects – pastures, which need a special management to increase their productivity and ecological capacity with respect to flora and fauna.

Zone A and B do not comprise private lands. The zones B and C have a Buffer sense for the strictly protected areas and also from the standpoint of the geosystem balance (in general ecology terms). On the whole, the zones A, B and C comprise 11841.27 ha, distributed in 180 objects, taking into consideration the different landowners in the borders of integral areas from the territorial position.

Other territories of the park are included into the Economical Zone (D), which comprises 38926.73 ha. The status of this area is similar to the "Cooperation Zone" of Biosphere Reserves where sustainable development technologies should be applied.

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