Июл 21 2000

Medical And Hygienic Threatens Due To The Development Of  Transport By Land In Poland

Опубликовано в 23:25 в категории Симпозиум

MEDICAL AND HYGIENIC THREATENS DUE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF  TRANSPORT BY LAND IN POLAND

Wiesław Renke

Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine in Gdynia, Poland

         Transport of goods in Poland in 79% is led through roads. The road network, however one of the longests in Europe is also one of the worst.  Technical problems are linked with the growing traffic. Only in period of 1990 - 1995 on basic road network the traffic grew by 40% and on roads as Warsaw - Katowice or Warsaw - Poznań even by a 100% (1).

         The proper function of transport is closely connected with the adequate road network. Its density together with the structure of routs, technical state decide about the proper development of particular regions of the country and of the bonds with international economy systems.

         Polish network is formed by 370 000 kilometers of roads, among them:

national roads - 46 000 km

voivodship roads - 130 000 km

community and local roads - 175 000 km.

         National and voividship roads, administrated by the government, form  48% of public roads and carry almost 90% of the traffic.  

         For the tranzit traffic the most important is the network of international roads passing through Poland. It consists of the 13 routs with common lenght of 5500 km. In this network threre is only 258 km of motorways, 263 km of express roads highways, 809 km of double - roadways and 3200 km of roadwith hardened shoulders (1,4).

         Both the users and the specialists agree that the standard of the road network in Poland is not adequate to the present needs. The main reason is the rapid grow of the level of motorization.

         The number of registered cars in Poland increased from the 5,5 million in 1985 to over 12 000 million in 1999. One has to take into consideration the further grow of the number of cars, up to reaching the Western Europe index: 1 car for 2 inhabitants, which means 20 million of cars. Morover, the hundreds of thousands of foreign cars using the Polish roads should be calculated; the majority of them are tranzit (1).

         The economic development of the country and the animated international contacts are the reason for the growing demand for the road transport. Very high dynamics of transport was noted on border crossings, on the western border particularly.

         From the sanitary point of view, the problems are due to the transport of conteners (?). The specificity of contener consignment, that packed and sealed at the senders is not controlled on the route of tranzit, is linked with the danger of rapid infective diseases and/or the carriers transfer, especially if they come from the epidemic regions. The sanitar examination of contener cargo causes big problems in sea harbours, where the control in very limited or almost impossible in some cases, e.g. when the conteners are numbrous, placed one over another (6).

         Solutions should be found in case of the truck drivers and their hygiene of work - the obligation of work and rest time monitoring should be introduced together with the building of communication routs infrastructure - network of well equipped filling stations, park places, motels, restaurants and pubs, technical service stations. It is particularly important because the heavy wheel traffic is forbidden during holidays.

         Among the environmental factors linked with work and affecting the driver’s health mentioned should be the following factors: physical (vibration, noise, microclimat), chemical (carbon oxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, hydrocarbons, lead compounds, inorganic and organic dusts). Moreover, the driver is forced to the long lasting concentration of sight, long lasting sitting position, which is connected with the increased tensions of adequate muscle groups. The important parameter is the time of exposition to those factors, which is the time of driving.

         Work of a driver is connected with a big psychical load, due both to the monotony (because of the continuous repeating of the same functions and the work conditions) and the changing, more often imortant emotional strain with low level of contact and social support. It is a classic example for the work of high stress level (3,5).

         Quite numerous epidemiological studies, performed in European countries United States of America and Canada, concerning the drivers of buses and trucks, prove the higher mortality and morbidity of those professional groups, which is caused by the diseases of cardiovascular system and some types of neoplasm. The results of the Svedish study show the higher risk of death due to the cardiac infarct (150 - 160%) in regions of big aglomerations, while in regions with majority of country population the mortality rate was close to the one of the whole population. The similar tendency was noted in canadian, danish and dutch studies and for bus drivers in London (2).

         Stressed should be also the incidence of neoplasms in organs especially exposed to the action of such carcinogens as the components of combustion gases - respiratory and urinary systems. In american study, concerning the truck drivers it was found out, that the risk of lung cancer in this professional group is 1,5 times higher than in control group. 

         The conclusion of some epidemiological studies is that bus and truck drivers retire several years earlier than the workers of other public services, mainly because of the diseases of bone and muscle system, psychiatric and cardiovascular system diseases (2).

         The presented data, concerning the influence of work conditions of the driver on the health, show, that due to the development of road transport in Poland the higher incidence of some diseases in this professional group should be taken into consideration.

Reference

1. Jezierski H.: Drogi na skraju kryzysu

    Gazeta Transportowa  2000, 8, 21; 5

2.Piątkiewicz J.A., Pietrewicz M.: Wpływ środowiska i warunków kierowania pojazdem na stan zdrowia kierowcy

    Lekarz Kolejowy, 1997, 13, 1; 29

3. Renke W.: Aktualne problemy higieny transportu

    Zdrowie Publ. 1992, 103, 2; 113

4. Renke W.: Problemy higieny transportu w Polsce na tle sytuacji międzynarodowej

    Biul.Met.-Org.Inst.Med.Morsk.i Trop. 1998, 31,2; 7

5. Renke W.: Zagadnienia zdrowotne występujące w transporcie – potrzeba kształcenia lekarzy w nowej specjalności

    VII Sympozjum “Zagrożenia zdrowotne w środowisku pracy” Wrocław 4-6.11.1999

    Streszczenia referatów, str.23

6. Sobol Z., Szumilas T., Wasilewska H.: Problemy sanitarne związane z kontenerowym przewozem ładunków

    Biul.Met.-Org.Inst.Med.Morsk.i Trop. 1985, 18, 4; 31

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