Июл 04 2001

Role Of Ecological Geology In Solution

Опубликовано в 15:45 в категории Экология Черного моря

Role of Ecological Geology in Solution

of Ecological Problems

of Ukrainian Black Sea littoral

A.V. Chepizhko

Odessa National University, Odessa, Ukraine

Science and technology have a growing impact on human civilization and the ecosystems of the Earth. They can nurture and endanger life. This is the basis of special responsibility to which many engineers and scientists feel committed. The concept of sustainable development envisages a co-evolution of humankind and the biosphere, which ensures and supports their long-time viability, separately and in their interconnectedness. Humankind depends on a healthy and nourishing natural and social environment. The increasing overexploitation of natural resources and the related pollution is endangering the ability of ecosystems to recover from stress and catastrophes. Humankind is thus gradually eroding its life-support basis. At the same time the sustainability of our social, economic and political structures has to be questioned, because they lead, inherently, to gross inequalities.

Considering seaside zone includes some technogenic-geological systems (TGS) forming by influence of regional components as offshore - coast - onshore. A coastal part of a land and coastline are under hard anthropogenic and man-caused pressure.

Researches on ecological geology consist of two interconnected two interconnected directions: 1) regional research, and 2) geological monitoring. First one is carried out of a initial condition in mutual relation of environment, human action and technogenesis. Monitoring provides valuation and forecast of change of geological environment and technogenical sphere, and influence of these changes to environment. Surface and subsurface geological process cause occurring changes in TGS as well as man-caused ones, they provide disturbance of existing natural metastable systems. Unpredictable and uncontrollable changes of TGS can obtain irreversible character and result in ecological crisis [1].

Regional ecologic-geologycal valuation based on forecasting of reaction of environment on technogenesis, analysis of ecological crisis situations and

environment protection should first of all take into account geological processes promoting ecological crisis situation as well as geodynamical, geochemical, hudrodynamical, authigenic, mineralization and others. Main types of ecologic-geologycal anomalies are zones of increased or lowered significance of geophysical parameters, fault and fractured zones, radiochemical and geochemical anomalies, zones polluted by radionuclides, areas with enormous high content of pesticides etc.

The main problems for the Ukrainian Black Sea onshore (Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson areas) are the protection of water resources from technogenic pollution; the Black Sea water protection; environment protection from atmospheric pollution, and increasing of level of complete and complex using of mineral resources. The major problem is preservation of ecological niche of human existence.

The bases of economical development of the region are navigation activity of ports, development marine natural resources, mechanical engineering, agroindustry, and health resort and recreation areas. Main ecology-geological problems of the region are determined by intensive development of coastal zone, increasing of waste and seawater pollution. Negative ecology-geological condition of the region surrounding. Odessa City is increased by big enterprise producing ammonia, overloading complex at port "Southern" and construction of marine terminal for crude oil overloading.

Fundamental concept of socio-economic development of the region shall include the solution of the problem of ecology-geological maintenance of rational utilization of natural resources of the whole region and the Black Sea coast in view of priority their health resorting and recreational significance. Any proposals concerning expending tecnogenic objects and/or building of new ones shall be considered whether realization of such projects is necessary from the point of view of the level of ecology-geological risk for environment and human. Existing ecological situation in the region is considered as close to ecological crisis therefore natural environmental protection projects and scientific researcher shall carry out on the basis of the theory and methods of ecological geology [2].

The analysis of state of a geological medium of a north-west part of a shelf of the Black Sea (Ukraine) shows complication of an ecological situation. Problems solving of ecological geology by the sea the realizations of researches of flowing past geological processes by geological and physical methods require.

One of the main objects of inquiry in ecology is the "biosphere". The concept comprises the layers of atmosphere, water and lithosphere (geological medium). The ecological significance of lithosphere as the biosphere element is determined by its geophysical content, which is affected considerably by technogenic factors. The action off tectonic and geodynamical factors (active breaks, seismically, present movement of Earth’s crust, etc.) determines the nature of sedimentation, influx and passing of man-made products, the chemical composition of the environment end the energetic structure of a biosphere. Quite important bat not sufficiently studied is the influence caused by non-stationary and irregular astrogeophysic and man-made fields on living organisms.

All numerous manifestations of life on Earth originated and developed in constantly changing geologic and geophysical conditions. Thanks to their unique combination it was possible for other life to occur and exist. The study of the laws governing the development and evolution of living organisms was conducted by biologists without a detailed analysis of geologic and geophysics conditions of existence. Till now it has been impossible to fulfil because of the absence of clear ideas of the nature of geologic surroundings, the acting forces of geological-geophysical processes and the interrelation of different factors at all levels from the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere to the hydrosphere and lithosphere. The question as to how the regular effect of the Sun and moon takes place on the Earth\’s biosphere is still open. However, present day achievements of helio- and geophysics allow restoring the general pattern of solar-lunar influence on the whole planet and its separate regions.

The area under investigation is characterized by a unique combination of natural and anthropogenic factors of ecological risk (the presence of large magnetic and gravitational anomalies, a net of deep breaks in the Earth\’s crust, a high level of antrophication and pollution of the sea). Thus one can expect the influence of outer (cosmic, geophysical) effects on the state and evolution of marine ecosystems.

To determine the nature and degree of the influence of geologic and geophysical state on the organisms, population and ecosystem level which on the basis of reconstructed states and special experimental studies to reveal the effect of the integrated effect of geologic and geophysics factors on leading components and processes of marine ecosystems; and evaluate the trend of their reaction and probability of formation of additional risk factors.

Anomalies of these fields occur mostly in places of active deep breaks. Within these breaks the local (canal) fields of natural and man-made co-operating with the geomagnetic field, and create a very negative, combined, synergetic action on biological organisms.

Most harmful are the close proximity man-made sources of electromagnetic irradiation and zones of deep break full of electric energy. This may lead to the occurrence of electromagnetic fields with absolute new performances.

The geodynamic processes in the zones of breaks are accompanied by transformation of mechanical energy into electrical and electromagnetic energy. The electromagnetic irradiation is impulsive at a local scale during relaxation of the excited state of breeds. The zones of active depth breaks are often accompanied by discharges of gas emanations, geochemical anomalies of metals in soils and water creating natural zones ecological discomfort.

All above-stated testifies, that the study of a depth geological structure, in particular, the detailed mapping of active deep breaks is necessary as a perspective stage in ecological studies of territories. Very important is the experimental installation recording of energetic activity of breaks and their influence on biological organisms. These studies are carrier out by monitoring of the geological environment by using different methods, and involving specialists from different fields such as Odessa Branch, Institute of Biology Southern Seas National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Odessa National University, Odessa Observatory of Radioastronomical Institute National of Academy Scientists of Ukraine [2].

Geological, geophysical, biological and ecological information data for the past 40 years have been used. The area of investigation is the Ukrainian sector of the Black Sea continental margin (north-west Black Sea shelf). Scientifically, this is a favorable site for complex study of geotectonic, geodynamic, astrogeophysical and biological processes in them interrelations. The model of distribution of rays of a signal is offered at passing in a two-stratified geological medium superimposed water by a stratum, that answers geological circumstances on a north-west part of a shelf of the Black Sea. The shaping of a system of geological monitoring is possible because of geodynamic model, theory about the intense-deformed condition terrestrial crust and singularities of distribution seismic - acoustic of waves in a geological medium. A series of depth breaks has been established within the range of the southern and southwestern marginal destructive part of the East-European platform. These breaks of the Proterozoic era are linked with the initial stage of riftogenesis when the Protethys Ocean was formed. Beginning from the Mezozoic period, after the closing of Paleotethys, the territory under consideration underwent compression with the formation of a subcollision area (Preddobrudjie) and parts of the active marginal area (Southern Crimea). Present today are there ancient submeridional breaks of the Precambrian formation, and also, large geological anomalies as horsts and grabens. The degree of power activity of these geological structures and ecological significance should be clarified in future complex investigations.

References

1. Earthquakes associated with diffuse zones of deformation in the oceanic lithosphere / Chen Wang-Ping, Grimison Nina L. // Tectonophysics – 1989. – V. 166, № 1-3. –P. 133-150.

2. Chepizhko A. V. Monitoring of the intense condition in structural – tectonical fields (on an example of study of a northwest part Skif-plate). – Odessa, 1997. – 212 p.

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