Июн 27 2001

Integrated Management The Coastal Zone

Опубликовано в 11:15 в категории Экология Черного моря

Integrated management the coastal zone

in Ukraine: policy and experience

I. Ivanenko1, A. Tkachov2

1Ministry ecology and natural resources of Ukraine

2Institut of geography NASU

In Ukraine the borders of the coastal zone are determined in accordance to the Nordwikcs Principles of the Regulations in regard to ICZM. The coastal zone in the context of the management creation for natural resources use, which are caused by National legislation, is considered as a natural and management area, the spacious widening of which is caused by the zone of intensive interaction of land and sea and is occupied by the boundaries of subjects of the governmental administrative management.

That is why as the object of management the coastal zone (CZ) is considered in the following boundaries:

1. Marine (aquatorial) part of the CZ as the external boundary has the restricted line of the territorial waters of the seas, that is conducted on the distance of 12 marine miles from the boundary of the internal marine seas.

2. Land (territorial) part of the CZ is restricted by the line, that is conducted in the most distant from the sea of the boundary of the administrative units of the basis level (Country Rada, Village Rada, Town Rada), whose areas are closely to the line of the seashore, taking into account the shores of the marine bays, limans, mouths of the rivers of the first order.

The determined boundaries of the Ukrainian CZ, which are determined in accordance with the above-mentioned principles, are shown on the map schemes.

In the coastal zone the following ministries and committees have the concerns as: the Ministry of Transport (partly, the Department of sea and river fleet), the State Committee for Urban Development and Architecture (town lands and resort complexes), the Ministry of Fishery (fish industry), the Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety, objects of natural and recreated fund, the National Agency for Marine Researches and Technologies, etc.

The main lack of the existing CZM (coastal zone management) functioning is the absence of the distribution of the functions between the state bodies in regard to the CZM system. It is established some functions for CZM on the local level. However, on the regional, village or country, district level it is not established the functions clearly yet. At present it is established a new temporary structure of the executive power in accordance to the Constitutional agreement, the aim of which is the establishment of the clear executive bodies on all levels from one side, the distribution of clear functions of the executive bodies from another side. After the adoption of the Constitution in the first part of 1996 year, it is expected the determination of structure for the state administrations.

During the formation of the network for the united CZM system one of the priorities is the public concerns in regard to the CZM. In accordance to the Law of Ukraine "About Environmental Protection" (article 38) it is provided the use of natural resources of national importance (free of charge), special importance (for payment). The most part of natural resources use which are situated in the coastal zone belong to the resources of state importance.

At present in Ukraine there is a process of the reformation of management relations which are caused by the necessity in the establishment of more effective system for the regulation for natural resources use in the coastal zone. The evaluation of assimilated capacities of the shore system, types of anthropogen loading for which districts and for how long they appear, on which elements of nature they influence are under the stage of research.

There are problems as protection from the shore destroyment, reduction of the pollution of coastal water, protection of changes in coastal ecosystems in the coastal zone, for the decisions of and with the aim of which it is necessary to establish the scientific system in regard to ICZM. There is a certain need for the ground and explanation of ICZM problems, for the realization of appropriate decisions taking into account the effective mechanisms of natural resources use and evaluation of marine environment quality, that include the following:

1. Legislative foundations for natural resources use on the basis of regulation of activities.

2. Establishment of management subjects for natural resources uses in the coastal zone.

3. Combination of social and economic and environmental sustainable development.

4. Establishment of economic mechanism for rational natural use, taking into account environmental problems for the solution and making decisions in regard to the coastal zone.

5. Environmental and economic monitoring and impact assessment as the consequences of the environmental measures; to develop the network of collection and transformation of information with following elaboration of the given information for making decisions.

One of the important tasks is the use of social and economic mechanism for sustainable development on different levels for CZM: local, regional, national, international. As the main base for the solution of the given task it is worth while to use the principle of the formation of natural and economic complexes for the provision of maximum possible economic and environmental sustainability in the coastal development. For the achievement of these relations it is useful to implement the principle of zoning for the identification of specialized districts in the coastal territory, taking into account the priorities of social and economic and geographical approaches for their development (industrial, agricultural, resort and recreated, settlements, recreated areas).

It is also important to identify the management levels for the making decisions of natural resources use in regard to:

1. Management reaction during the special and emergency environmental situations that cause the infringement of legislative regulations of natural resources.

2. Current management that is caused by the necessity of environmental control of some natural resources users.

3. Expected management that is based on scientific prognosis for the making decisions in the field of environment on regional, local, national and international levels.

It is necessary to stress that for the development of management mechanism of natural resources use the economic and environmental aspects should be taken into consideration with the aim to change the administrative methods into aministrative-economic methods.

The next tasks are included for the nearest period:

– introduction of payment regime for natural resources use;

– development of environmental legislation, effective mechanism and its implementation;

– implementation of the principles of sustainable development during the fulfillment of management programmes in the CZM.

The priority is given to the territorial management in the field of natural resources use. That is why more wide responsibilities have to be given to the local bodies that are regulated by the Law of Ukraine "About Self-Governance". On the basis of this law it is established the responsibilities between local bodies concerning the regulation of natural resources use.

The coastal zone is the zone where the definite value is characterized by the following features of the types of economic and natural processes as:

– territorial unity for interaction with sea;

– dynamics and differentiation;

– energetic intensivity;

– increased attractiveness in regard to some types of activities.

The establishment of ICZM network is the task of national importance. ICZM includes the management system with taking into consideration the environmental goals. The aim of the management activities is to get maximum economic results and minimize the losses in the coastal ecosystems. So for the interaction of the system with the conservation of environment it has to be taken into account the industrial and agricultural productive forces, local bodies, administrative bodies, representatives of sea industries and tourism centres. That is why the main ICZM principles are the combination of concerns in all branches of activities on the basis of enforcement and reorientation of branch management for the prevention of violation on coastal ecosystems, for the conservation of biodiversity, rational use of natural resources.

As the basis for the ICZM structure it should be taken into consideration the principles of territorial management, the analysis of consequences after the implementation of the decisions, the non-stop process for making decisions, the constant evolution of methods for making decisions, the preventive character of management actions.

The key role in the ICZM system has to belong to the programme actions for the provisions of sustainable social, economic and environmental development. By this programme it has to be identified the capacities of approaches of activities, which are economically effective and environmentally safety.

The development of ICZM system is connected with the distribution of the responsibilities between central and local bodies, the strengthening of traditional types of activities in regard to the coastal environmental infrastructure development.

For the provision of the above-mentioned activities the next measures have to be included: renovation and strengthening of the existing regulation of activities, division into districts with identification of functions responsibilities for separate parts of land and water, development of projects for some districts, implementation of financial mechanisms for natural resources users, the concentration and use of costs through the territorial financial funds.

The existing ICZM centres do not establish a separate territorial network. In the process of the reformation of the state management system such network can be developed in different approaches. These approaches are caused by several factors, the main of them are as the correlation between functions and responsibilities of central and local bodies, especially in regard to the financing of environmental activities.

On the beginning stage the most applicable formation of ICZM structure is in the direction to the establishment of ICZM centre on national level and regional subcentres, which establish regional network of centres for making decisions with the aim to coordinate some definite parts of activities.

On the next stage it should be developed the existing local bodies (regional, town, district), territorial centres network for making decisions and identification of their responsibilities.

The beginning stage is based on the principles of the existing functions of management bodies with their development. The functions of coordination have to be given to the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety because it is its responsibilities in the field of environment. For the implementation of ICZM it is established a special department concerning the regulation of natural resources use in the coastal zone and appropiate divisions in the regional environmental departments. For the branch coordination the leading body has to be given responsibilities on the basis of legislation.

During the identification of the territorial and aquatorial borders in the coastal zone as the unit of CZM system one limited feature is the borders of territorial administrative bodies in the regions, that have to be included into the coastal zone of Ukraine, the number of which are shown in the table 1 below.

Table 1. The number of administrative units in the coastal zone of Ukraine

Autonomous Republic,region,central towns

Administrative districts, regional towns

Towns on local level,village and country rada

1

Odesa region

11

53

2

Mykolaiv region

5

31

3

Kherson region

8

47

4

Zaporizhia region

4

19

5

Donetsk region

3

24

6

Autonomous Republic of Crimea

15

70

7

Sevastopol city

4

TOTAL

46

248

On the first stage of the arrangement of ICZM it is expected the provision concerning the regulation of conflicts, the encouragement of cooperation, the exclusion of repeated functions, the solution of questions under argument, the control of execution and implementation of plans and projects.

With the aim of rational use of natural resources a special financial mechanism in regard to the CZM have to be established. The revenues can be provided by special payments for natural resources use.

By the State Programme of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources Use of Ukraine it is determinated the necessity for decentralization of the environmental management system. In the coastal zone of Ukraine the special management subjects for natural resources use should be established. This necessity is caused by high concentration of different types of economic activities in the coastal area from one side, and high influence on coastal ecosystems from another side.

The existing legislative base concerning the natural resources use in the coastal zone of Ukraine is not sufficiently clear. One of the main problems is the lack of the effective scheme in regard to the distribution of responsibilities and functions. That is why during the elaboration of ICZM system for Ukraine it should be taken into account the following aspects as:

1)formation of a special structure for natural resources use in the coastal zone taking into consideration the appropriate world experience;

2)clear and effective distribution of responsibilities and functions between state bodies on all levels and self-governance in regard to natural resources use management and social and economic development of coastal areas and, in particular, the formation of their budgets.

The new subjects for ICZM are such as regional centres for natural resources use in the coastal zone, which should be established in every region of the coastal zone of Ukraine. It is possible to begin with the formation of 2 or 3 regional management centre for natural resources use in the coastal zone, for example, for the Black Sea coast in the north-west coast, the Crimean coast and the Azov Sea coast.

For regional centres there is a certain need in the discussing and appropriate improvement of the functions and responsibilities with the existing legislation. They should be approached to the regulation of natural resources use in the coastal zone on the basis of the sustainable development principle. Regional centres should provide with a complete inventory of natural resources and the environment in the coastal zone, a background of regional and local standards for natural resources use from the point of all types of resources as land, water, coast and beaches, medical resources (muds, mineral water), fauna, flora, mineral sources. One more function for regional centres is environmental and social monitoring of coastal zone.

With the aim to meet needs for natural resources use in the coastal zone on national, regional, district and local levels regional centres should discuss and agree appropriate standards and quotas, give licences for natural resources use of different types for concrete management subjects in the coastal zone. Regional centres will be responsible for effective realization of payment mechanism for natural resources use. Besides prices for natural resources use in the coastal zone should have higher level, and the rent difference between payment for a definite resource on national level and in the coastal zone should be given into the responsibilities of regional centres completely or partly and sgoul meet the needs of monitoring management and social and economic development of coastal zone in Ukraine.

Regional centres should elaborate the conception of social and economic development for all coastal territories.

The proposed structure of working bodies for ICZM is shown on Picture 3. It should function on the base of self-financing, at the expenses of licencing for natural resources use and rent payments for resources.

More difficult task is the issue about effective distribution of responsibilities and functions in regard to natural resources use between different levels – from national to local level. It should be taken into account the world experience. Regional centres should form a regional commission as a body for coordination of natural resources use in the coastal zone from the representatives of all levels: national, regional, district, town, village.

In addition it is possible to use a contract form for interaction of regional centres and management structures of different levels. But the main activity for regional centres concerns natural resources use in the coastal zone. Existing management structures of different levels will manage by social and economic development in their appropriate areas as a whole.

At present for existing management subjects in the coastal zone of Ukraine (for regional state administrations, regional, district, town and village councils) one of the main issue is the issue for the establishment of their own budget on the base of the experience of some countries. It should be reviewed and legislatively approved the following basic scheme of the distribution of resources from budget receipts:

– taxes from revenues of citizens and enterprises is used for the formation of national budget;

– taxes from circulating capital is given to regional budget;

– taxes on immovables should be the base for the establishment of budgets for territorial and administrative units on the basic level;

– taxes on natural resources use should come to a special account of regional budget;

– payments for pollution of marine environment should be concentrated on a united national fund of marine protection.

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